Meşhur Bâbek Hûrremî'in temsilciliği yaptığı Hûrremdîn’îyye hareketin karargâhıdır. Hûrrem’îyye adını Mazdek'in eşi Hürrem'den alır. Hint-Avrupa dillerinde yiyecek, içecek anlamına gelen "Xurem", "Xwarin", ya da "Ve'xwarin" kelimesinin esası "Tabu yoktur, herşey mübâhtır,"mânâsına gelmektedir. Karargâhı "Bezz Kalesi" olan Hûrremdîn’îyye Hareketi İsyânı’nda Hâlife Mû'tasım’ın altı ünlü komutanı Bâbek Hûrremîtarafından mağlup edilmiş ve bölece "Bâbek Harekâtı" Abbâsîler açısından dönemin en korkulu isyânına dönüşmüştü. Hâlife Mû'tasım bu isyânı bastırmak için son çare olarak Abbâsî ordusunun başına bir Türk generali olan Afşın Haydâr bin Kâvûs’u atamak zorunda kalmıştı. GeneralAfşın, Türk köle askerlerinden müteşekkil olan bu yeni ordu ile isyâncıların üzerine yürüdü.
Antiquity: Ashkani period
Location: 149 km from Tabriz
Zahhak Castle is located at 149 km of Tabriz and 20 km south-east of Hashtrood. This historic fort is probably remained from Ashkani era, or has been Zoroastrianism temple, or the place for local army camp. The fort arch, beside works left in Mill Varamin hill, which are samples of Ashkani era architecture and a perfect and glorious design has seen in Ivan Khosrow in Ctesiphon.
Antiquity: Ilkhani period
Location: 180 km from the city of Tabriz
two kilometers south of Dokhtar(girl) Bridge is a castle called Dokhtar castle that was built on a rocky cliff on a highest mountain peak overlooking the caravan road shaped as irregular polygons brick- stone. The wall height which has considered as castle rampart is a about fourteen meters.
In the castle wall two entries has made that each of which has three meters long and above one of these entries is an inscription carved in stone which now does not remain any writing on it and the condition of the building and the materials used can be attributed to Ilkhani era Mogul. It is quoted in Chardin book “Ardeshir has built a Dokhtar castle at the top of a mountain. This is narrative that Ardeshir has built the fort for arrest noble princess. ’’ Shah Abbas ordered the destruction issued it, Because It was shelter for thieves that were prevailed on this mountain.
Location: 146 km from Tabriz
A historic castle which is located on the outskirts of Aras river and the village of Kordasht in Julfa. This castle, in terms of military and history has importance, especially during the reign of Abbas Mirza Fath Ali Shah Qajar regent of Fath Ali Shah Qajar has been highly regarded in Azerbaijan and was one of the headquarters during the wars between Russian-Iranian. This castle was built on top of a rocky hill and there was 6 guard tower at a height of hill that still remains some of these towers and walls.
Zahhak castle (Dash castle) Antiquity: Sasanian period
Location: 131 km from Tabriz city
Zahhak fortress 28 km from East of Ajab sher, located on the Sahand mountains. First time in 1971 by a German archaeological has been investigated. Except castle, there is a cemetery at the foot of the mountain where a ram stone statue is located. And beside cemetery, a village named Yengjah is located . In one of the Yengjah village houses wall has been placed tomb of stone rams , which based on the people descriptions, it is considered to belong to the Sassanid period.
Considering the vestiges of semi-cylindrical towers known as castle gate, probable this comments is correct. The structure of walls which combined with cube-shaped stones reminders of Sassanid walls coverings in the throne of Suleiman.
But all the pottery has obtained until now from Zahhak stony castle relevant to 11th and 12th AD centuries, the Islamic period.
However the carvings and embedding that has carved In the stone mountain (although it has differences from similar cases and pieces of rock in the shape of columns that has made from mountains ) all of them indicate to know this place relevant the pre-Islamic period.
Location: 147 km from Tabriz City
This historical castle because of white color of walls and towers, with white lime mortar which has made in green mountain peaks called "Aghje Qala". This castle is located in distance of 50 km northwest of Varzeghan city. Geographical location and the place of castle and architecture and the use of this castle is like other historic castles of Azerbaijan. What now remains from Aghjhe Qala 8 semi cylinder circular tower and 11 pieces of stone wide walls. Materials used to build the towers, major efforts hatched rocks and the mortar of walls and towers are from White Sarooj that lime is the most used material in it.On the south side of the castle 5 guard tower currently remains and 3 other towers is built in three corners of the castle. In the construction three types of materials used that each of them represents a period of ancient time and several stage of building castles. Materials like rubble stone and mortar related to the Ashkanian period, bricks related to Sasanian period and mortar and plaster is related to the post-Islamic era. Inside the castle there is also the graves that around them some bones and broken pottery can be seen.Aghja castle was military and defensive castle which has made to prevent the invasion of enemies of this region.
Antiquity: Early Islam
Location:179 km from Tabriz city
One of the most valuable and the most interesting monuments of the Ahar town is Horand castle, or Poshtab which has been on the highest mountain between the Poshtab and Kovjan villages. Poshtab village is located 12 km and 50 km of Ahar in west Horand. Pashto castle is built in the mountains that its height is over 3000 meters. Its fences are very high and rocky and surrounded by deep Cliffs. The only to crossing way to the castle is from the north entrance, with 220 stone steps. In the construction of castle walls rubble stone, clay mortar, mortar and some bricks have been used. Works obtained from the inside of castle an ancient pottery without role and journalist, Indicates this castle built in the early dominance of Islam to Arasbaran and Ghare Dag. From these castle like Babak castle perhaps simultaneously battle with Arabs rulings to the region has been used military.
Antiquity : First millennium before Islam
Location:123 km from Tabriz city
Joshyn historic castle or Joshun is located 26 km and 6 km from the village of Julfa towards west Varzeghan and its way is very difficult and mountainous. Castle on the mountain, which is surrounded on three sides by steep slopes and only way to communicate is a narrow mountain pass which only one or two people can climb it hardly, Because guarding and defend of the castle even with a small number also have been possible. This castle in the Arab invasion to Iran was one of the centers of resistance. Pottery which found in the castle grounds related to early centuries of the first millennium before Islam and Islam until in AH sixth century.
Antiquity: Sasanian period
Location:78 km from Tabriz city
Aq Qonbad castle or Holakokhan castle( idiomaticaly Chopoqlo castle) is located in Islamic Island. From mountain peaks of Islamic island Qala mountain or castle is located in the south of Qonbad village. This monument is related to Sasanian period that from building of the castle except stairs and water storages nothing is left.